Dizziness may be due to a variety of causes including low blood pressure and an inner ear disturbance of balance. The balance mechanisms and the inner ear are referred to as the vestibular system and the following syndromes describe common forms of inner ear dizziness.
Acute peripheral vestibular lesion: usually presents with prostrating vertigo without central nervous system symptoms. Be alert to headache which, although occurring with migraine, can also occur with a cerebellar haemorrhage in association with vertigo,
Benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo: Short lived vertigo on positioning, with common occurrence on getting into, out of, or rolling over in bed.
Uncompensated peripheral vestibular lesion: Persistent balance symptoms, usually aggravated by movement with sometimes visually induced symptoms of unsteadiness or vertigo with a moving visual scene.
Postural phobic vertigo: A condition with or without an underlying vestibular abnormality where symptoms have a situational occurrence, often with stress and a busy visual environment. This can lead to a fear of undertaking normal activities - hence the word phobic.Bilateral vestibular failure: Primarily unsteadiness with oscillopsia or movement of the environment, without vertigo when there is complete loss of vestibular function.
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